Fresh Chiles

AJIAji pepper1

  • Source: South America, especially Peru.
  • Heat: 7-8 Although it is usually seen in its yellow dried form.
  • The aji can also be founding its green or red state.
  • It tapers to a point, and measures about 3-5 inches long and 3/4inch in diameter.
  • Thin fleshed; has a tropical fruit flavor and a searing, clear heat.
  • Used in ceviches, salsas, and sauces, and pickled (en escabeche).

AJIDULCE

  • Source: Venezuela and northeastern South America.

    aji dulce chile

  • Heat 7-8.5Related to the habañero and Scotch bonnet.
  • Bright green to yellow, orange, and red.
  • Shaped like a miniature elongated bell pepper.
  • Measures about 2-3inches long and 1-1/2 to 2 inches in diameter.
  • Thin fleshed; very fruity in flavor andhot.
  • This is not, as the name suggests, a sweet or mild chile.
  • Used in tropical salsas and fish stews.

AMATISTAamatista pepper

  • Source: South America. Heat 7.
  • An ornamental.
  • Bright purple, with wide shoulders tapering to a rounded end, measuring about 1/2 to 1-1/2 inches long and 1/2 inch in diameter.
  • Thick fleshed; has earthy, deep, sweet (but not fruity) tones.
  • Commonly pickled (en escabeche)
  • Used decoratively in salads.

ANAHEIM (green)

  • Source: California and the Southwest.
  • Heat 2-3. Also known as the California or long greenchile, and closely related to the New Mexico chile.

    ANAHEIM (green)

  • Pale to medium bright green, tapered,and measuring about 6 inches long and 2 to 2-1/2 inches in diameter.
  • Medium to thick fleshed; has a green vegetable flavor that is improved by roasting.
  • Originally grown around Anaheim in Southern California at the turn of the twentieth century.
  • Now abailable year-round in California and the Southwest, and in Latin markets elsewhere.
  • Excellent stuffed (rellenos).
  • Also used in stews and sauces, and as rajas.

ANAHEIM (red)

  • Source: California and the Southwest.
  • Heat 2-3. Ripe form of the green Anaheim.
  • Also known as the chile colorado or long red chile.

    ANAHEIM (red) pepper

  • The red Anaheim has a more developed sweetness than the green Anaheim and is a very versatile chile.
  • Excellent in sauces, as rajas, and Stuffed (rellenos).
  • Also good pickled (en escabeche) and grilled.
  • Used as a decorative element in soups and stews.
  • Dried red Anaheims are commonly used to make ristras.
  • The powdered form is also sold as chile colorado.

BELLPEPPER (green)

  • Primary Sources; Mediterranean Basin, Mexico and California.
  • Heat 0. Bright medium green,shaped like a cube but rounded at the edges, sometimes tapering slightly from broadshoulders.

    greenbellpepper

  • Measures about 4 to 5 inches long and about 3 to 4 inches in diameter.
  • Thick fleshed; has a sweet, mild, green vegetable flavor.
  • Never substitute bell peppers for chiles such as Anaheims or New Mexico greens or reds in Southwestern or Latin American dishes, as the flavors are not complementary to the spices used.
  • Bell peppers also occur in a variety of other colors.
  • Used in salads, casseroles, and in vegetable dishes.
  • Can be stuffed, roasted, or grilled.

BELLPEPPER (blond)blonde bellpepper

  • White to pale yellow bell pepper.
  • Measuring about the same as the green bell pepper.
  • Thick fleshed; not as sweet as the red or yellow bell peppers.
  • Mainly used decoratively.

BELLPEPPER (orange)

    • Source: Holland and California.

      Orange bell pepper

    • Heat: 0. Bright orange, slightly smaller than the green bell pepper.
    • Measuring about 3 to 4 inches long and 3 inches in diameter.
    • Thick fleshed;very sweet, with crisp, fruity tones.
    • Used in salads, salsas, and stews, and with pastas.
    • Can be grilled or roasted.

BELLPEPPER (red)

  • Source: Holland, the Mediterranean Basin, and California.

    red bell pepper

  • Heat: 0.
  • Also known as a sweet pepper.
  • Bright red, usually shaped like the green bell pepper.
  • Measuring about 4 to 5inches long and 3 to 4 inches in diameter.
  • Thick fleshed; very sweet, with crisp, fruity tones similar to ripened tomatoes.
  • Used in salads and stew, and with pastas.
  • Can be grilled or roasted.

BELLPEPPER (violet)violet purple bell pepper

  • Source: Holland.
  • Heat: 0.
  • Bright medium purple to violet, tapered.
  • Measuring about 5 to 6inches long and 3 inches in diameter.
  • Thick fleshed; very sweet, though not quite as sweet as the red orange, or yellow bell peppers.
  • This pepper darkens a little when cooked.
  • Used as a decorative element in salads. Can be roasted.

BELLPEPPER (yellow)

yellow bell pepper

  • Source: Holland, the Mediterranean Basin, and California.
  • Heat: 0. Bright yellow, similar in size and shape to the green bell pepper.
  • Thick fleshed; very sweet, with crisp, fruity tones.
  • Used in salads, and salsas, and with pastas.
  • Can be grilled or roasted.

BRAZILIAN (Malagueta)BRAZILIAN (Malagueta) pepper

  • Source: Brazil. Heat: 9.
  • Light to medium green, tapered.
  • Measuring 3/4 to 1 inch long and about 1/4 to 1/2 inch in diameter.
  • Thin fleshed; a searing heat with a slightly green flavor.
  • Often added to marinades and vinegars; also pickled (en escabeche).

CHAWA

  • Source. Yucatan and the Caribbean coastal area of Mexico.
  • Heat: 3-4. Pale to medium yellow, usually curved and tapering to a point.

    chawa peppers

  • Measuring about 3 to 5 inches long and 1 to 1-1/2 inches in diameter.
  • Very thin fleshed; has a sweet, mild flavor.
  • Very similar in appearance and characteristics to the banana or Hungarian wax chiles, which are marketed mostly in California in the fall.
  • Most commonly used in salads and ceviches, or pickled (en escabeche).
  • Can also be used for stuffing (cold rellenos).

CHILACA

  • Source: Guanajuato, Jalisco, and Zacatecas (central Mexico).
  • Heat 3-4.

    chilaca pepper

  • Dark brown or chocolate colored, elongated, and often curving in shape.
  • Measures about 6 to 9 inches long and 1 inch in diameter.
  • Most often used in its dried form, when it is referred to as a chile pasilla or chile negro.
  • Very rarely found fresh in North America.
  • Sometimes pickled (en escabeche) or added to sauces.

DEAGUA

  • Source: Oaxaca region.
  • Heat 4-5.
  • Medium green to red when fully ripe.

    chile de agua

  • Tapered to a point, and measuring about 4 to 5 inches long and 1 to 1-1/2 inches in diameter.
  • Thin fleshed; has a green, vegetable flavor, a little sharp like a tomatillo, with little fruitiness.
  • The red deagua has a more developed sweetness than the green.
  • Excellent stuffed (rellenos), or used in soups or mole sauces.

DUTCH (red)

  • Source: Holland.
  • Heat; 6. Also known as the Holland chile.
  • Bright scarlet, slightly curved, and tapering to a point.
  • Measures about 4 inches long and 1 to 1-1/2 inches in diameter.

    OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

  • Thick fleshed; has a sweet, hot, and intense flavor.
  • This chile is a new hybrid developed for the booming Dutch export trade in specialty produce.
  • It was probably bred from an Indonesian variety.
  • It can be substituted for the red Thai chile or the red Fresno chile.
  • Commonly used in salsas and as a decorative element in soups and stews.
  • It can be roasted and blended into sauces and can also be pickled (en escabeche).

FIESTA/ FIPS

  • Source: Northern Mexico and Louisiana.
  • Heat: 6-8. Both these ornaments are related to the cayenne and Tabasco chiles.
  • There are many similar ornaments, varying in color from bright deep red or scarlet to a cream,yellow, or orange.

    fiesta chile

  • Usually cylindrical and slightly tapered, with a rounded end.
  • Measures about 1-2 inches long and 1/2-3/4 inches in diameter.
  • These chiles vary in flavor from mild to sweet and intense.
  • They grow well indoors in small pots, and can be used as a table decoration.
  • Although they are mainly decorative, they can be used in cooking to add a little zip to salsas, stews, and stir-fries.

FRESNO (red)

  • Source: Mexico, California, and the Southwest.
  • Heat 6-5. Also known as a chile caribe or chile cera.

    Fresno Pepper

  • Tapers to a rounded end and measures about 2 inches long and between 1 to1-1/4 inches in diameter.
  • A wax-type chile, thick fleshed, sweet, and hot.
  • Usually only available in the fall.
  • It is sometimes mistaken for a red jalapeño, although the two are different varieties and the Fresno is broader at the shoulders, as well as hotter.
  • Excellent in salsas, ceviches, stuffings, breads, and pickled (en escabeche).
  • They can also be roasted and blended into sauces.

GÜERO

  • Source: Northern Mexico and the Southwest.
  • Heat: 4.5-6.5. Güero is a generic term for yellow chiles, the name coming from the spanish, meaning light skinned or blond.

    guero-banana chile

  • It usually applies to pale yellow tapered chiles such as the Hungarian wax or banana chiles, or the Santa Fe grande.
  • Size varies from about 3 to 5 inches long and 1 to 1-1/2 inches in diameter.
  • Medium fleshed, slightly sweet, with a sharp and intense waxy taste.
  • Varies in strength from medium to hot.Primarily used to make yellow mole sauces.
  • Can also be used in other sauces or in salads,or pickled (en escabeche).

HABAÑERO

  • Source: Yucatan and the Caribbean.
  • Heat: 10. Dark green to orange, orange-red, or red when fully ripe.
  • Lantern shaped, and measuring about 2 inches long and 1-1/4 to 1-3/4 inches in diameter.
  • The habañero(meaning “from Havana”) is used extensively in the Yucatan and is the hottest of any chile grown in Central America or the Caribbean, and indeed, the rest of the world.

    Habanero Pepper

  • Users beware! It has been estimated that the habañero is 30 to 50 times hotter than the jalapeño, and it can have an irritating effect in the mouth and on the fingers.
  • Be careful when handling. In spite of its fierce, intense heat, it has a wonderful,distinctive flavor with tropical fruit tones that mix well with food containing tropical fruits or tomatoes.
  • The ripe habañero is a little sweeter and has a more developed fruitiness than the green habañero.
  • Closely related to the Scotch bonnet and the Jamaican hot chiles.
  • Mainly used in salsas, chutneys, marinades for seafood, and pickled (en escabeche).
  • It is becoming increasingly popular in the United States as a bottled condiment sauce.

HUACHINANGO

  • Source: Oaxaca, Puebla, and the central valley of Mexico.
  • Heat 5-6. Region-specific name in central Mexico, Puebla, and Oaxaca fora type of large red jalapeño. Commonly found with white veins on the skin, tapers to a rounded end.

    huachinango chile

  • Measures about 4 to 5 inches long and about 1-1/2 inches in diameter.
  • Thick fleshed; sweet, with a medium-hot intensity.
  • They are highly prized for their sweetness and thick flesh, and cost three to four times as much as common jalapeños.
  • Huachinango chiles are smoked and dried to make chipotle grande chiles.
  • Fresh huachinango chiles are commonly used in salsas, stews and sauces.

HUNGARIAN-CHERRYhungarian cherry pepper

  • Source: Hungary, Eastern Europe, and California.
  • Heat: 1-3. Scarlet to deep red in color, almost spherical, and measuring about1-3/4 inches in diameter.
  • Fleshy, whit many seeds.
  • Has medium sweetness and is usually mild, but can range to medium heat.
  • Similar in shape to the hotter Creole pepper.
  • Most commonly used in salads, and pickled (en escabeche).
  • Sometimes dried.

HUNGARIAN-SWEET

  • Source: Hungary, Eastern Europe, and California.

    hungarian sweet peppers

  • Heat: 0-1.
  • Deep crimson, elongated, with broad shoulders and a rounded end.
  • Measuring 5-6 inches long and about 2 to 2-1/2 inches in diameter at the shoulders.
  • Thick fleshed; very sweet.
  • Similar in flavor to the pimento.
  • Can be roasted and stuffed or used in sauces.

JALAPEÑO (green)

  • Source: Verancruz, Oaxaca, Chihuahua, Texas, and other parts of the Southwest.
  • Heat: 5.5.

    jalapeno green pepper

  • Named after the town of Jalapa in the Mexican state of Veracruz.
  • Bright medium to dark green, tapering to a rounded end.
  • Measuring about 2 to 3 inches long and 1 to 1-1/2inches in diameter.
  • Thick fleshed; has a green vegetable flavor.
  • Probably the best known and most widely eaten hot chile in the United States and the first chile to be taken to space, in 1982.
  • Jalapeños can be added to almost anything that you want to spice up;salsas, stews, breads, sauces, dips, ect.
  • They can be diced up and used as a topping for snack foods.
  • They are also good pickled (en escabeche), or roast them and stuff them with cheese, fish, or meat to be served as a cocktail snack.

JALAPEÑO (red)

  • Source:Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chihuahua, Texas, and other parts of the Southwest.

    jalapeno red pepper

  • Heat: 5.5.Ripe form of the green jalapeño.
  • The red jalapeño has a sweeter flavor than the green.
  • Use it pickled (en escabeche) or in salsas, stew, sauces, or tamales.
  • It can also be served as rajas, or roasted for soups.
  • Red jalapeños are dried by smoking them, usually over mesquite wood.
  • The dried smoked jalapeños are know as chipotle chiles.

JAMAICAN HOT

  • Source: Jamaica and othe Caribbean islands.

    jamaican hot pepper

  • Heat: 9. Related to the habañero and Scotch bonnet.
  • Bright red, smaller than the habañero but similar in shape, about 2 inches long and 1 to 1-1/2 inches in diameter.
  • Very thin fleshed, with a sweet, hot flavor.
  • The Jamaican hot is particularly suited to dishes containing tropical fruits.
  • Commonly used in salsas, Caribbean fish stews, curries,and chutneys.

KOREAN

  • Source: Korea, Japan, and California.
  • Heat: 6-7.
  • Related to the Thai chile.

    korean pepper

  • Bright green, slightly curved, and tapering to a pint.
  • Measures about 3 to 4 inches long and about 3/4 inches in diameter.
  • Very thin fleshed, with a hot green vegetable flavor.
  • Available at Korean or Southeast Asian grocery stores.
  • Grown in the United States for the Korean community.
  • This is the chile that gives the heat to kim chee, the spicy Korean pickled relish.
  • It is also used in marinades and other pickled dishes.

MACHO (green)macho green pepper

  • Source: Oaxaca and Yucatan regions.
  • Heat: 9-10. Related to the peguin.
  • Light to medium green, and measuring about 1/4 inch or less.
  • Use sparingly-this is a small but mighty chile, as you might guess by its name.
  • It is fiery hot, with a very sharp, intense flavor,and green tones.
  • Mainly used in salsas.
  • Can also be used in stews: add the whole chiles and remove them before serving.

MACHO (red)macho red pepper

  • Source: Oaxaca and Yucatan regions
  • Heat 9-10. Ripe form of the green macho.
  • Slightly larger, and with sweeter, riper tones.
  • Like the green macho, it is commonly used in salsas and stews.
  • The red macho chile is often grown as a small potted ornamental.

MANZANA

  • Source: Central America, Michocan, and the central valley of Mexico (Mexico City, region).
  • Heat 6-8.
  • Also know as chile rocoto, chile peron, or chile caballo.

    manzano pepper

  • Usually yellow-orange, and shaped very much like a bell pepper, measuring about 3 inches long and 2 to 2-1/4 inches in diameter.
  • Thin fleshed;soft and meaty in texture, with fruit like flavors.
  • Usually medium-hot, but can be very hot.
  • The manzana is unusual in that its seeds are black.
  • Used in salsas and sauces, or stuffed (rellenos).
  • It is also sliced into rajas and added to other dishes or served alone as a vegetable.

NEW MEXICO (green)

  • Source:Rio Grande Valley (New Mexico).
  • Heat 3-5.
  • Also known as the long green chile.
  • Paleto medium green, tapered, and measuring between 6 to 9 inches long and about 1-1/2 to 2inches in diameter.
  • Medium fleshed; varies considerably in strength from medium to very hot.

    new mexico green chile

  • The flavor is unlike that of any other chile in North America: sweet and earthy, with a clarity that seems to reflect the skies and landscapes of New Mexico.
  • It is hotter and has a clearer, more cutting chile flavor than the Anaheim.
  • It is available fresh almost year-round, although anyone who has been to Santa Fe in the fall knows that these chiles are roasted in huge quantities at that time of year when the bulk of the crop is in.
  • They freeze well, and frozen New Mexico green chiles are better than canned.
  • The New Mexico green is excellent in green chile sauces, stew, and salsas, stuffed (rellenos), and as rajas.
  • Try them roasted and peeled in sandwiches. In most cases, you can substitute a mixture of Anaheims and roasted jalapeños if the New Mexico greens are unavailable.

NEW MEXICO (red)

  • Source: Rio Grande Valley (New Mexico).
  • Heat: 3-4.
  • Ripe form of the New Mexico green chile.

    New Mexico Red Chili Peppers

  • A dark, intense red; fleshy and sweet.
  • The New Mexico red varies from medium to medium-hot.
  • When roasted, peeled, and dried, referred to as chile pasado (rarely found in this form outside New Mexico).
  • Commonly roasted and used in red chile sauces, barbecue sauces, pipian sauces, chutneys, salsas, rellenos, and tamales. They are also good as rajas.

PERUVIANperuvian pepper

  • Source: Peru, Columbia and Venezuela.
  • Heat: 7-8. Green, yellow, or red, rounded in shape, and measuring about 2-1/2 inches long and about 1-1/2 inches in diameter.
  • Thin fleshed; has a fruity taste with tropical berry tones.
  • Primarily used in salsas and ceviches.

PETER PEPPERRichards Pix 020209 - Peter pepper

  • Source: Louisiana and Texas.
  • Heat: 7.5.
  • Ripe form of a rare ornamental.
  • Bright red and crinkled, measuring about 3 to 4 inches long and about 1 inch in diameter.
  • Medium to thick fleshed, with a sweet, hot flavor.
  • Mainly an ornamental, but can be used in salsas.

PIMENTO

  • Source: California, southern United States, Hungary, and Spain.
  • Heat: 1.
  • Also known as chile pimiento, pimiento dulce, and pimiento morron.

    pimento peppers

  • Scarlet, almost heart shaped, tapering to a point, and measuring about 4inches long and 2-1/2 to 3 inches in diameter.
  • Fleshy and wonderfully sweet and aromatic,this chile is more flavorful than the red bell pepper, and varies in strength from very mild to slightly hot.
  • It is most commonly used in its powdered form which is called paprika.
  • The best paprika is imported from Hungary.
  • Look for it in the gourmet section of your grocery store or in shops that specialize in imported food items. Fresh pimentos are good in salads.
  • Canned pimentos are most often used as garnishes.

POBLANO (green)

  • Source: Puebla region, central valley of Mexico (Mexico City region), and California.
  • Heat: 3. One of the most popular fresh chiles used in Mexico.
  • Dark green, with a purple-black tinge, tapering down from the shoulders to a point.
  • Measures about 4 to 5inches long and 2-1/2 to 3 inches in diameter.

    poblano pepper

  • Thick fleshed; varies in strength between medium and hot.
  • It is mistakenly referred to as a pasilla in California, even though the pasilla is a different type of chile altogether (see Pasilla in the dried chile section).
  • The green poblano is always used cooked or roasted and never eaten raw. Roasting gives the poblano a fuller, smoky, more earthy flavor.
  • Poblanos that are very fiery should be seeded and De-veined.
  • This chile is favored for making chiles rellenos or any other stuffed chile dish because of its size and the thickness of the flesh. Also good as rajas, or made into sauces, especially moles and pipians.

POBLANO (red)poblano red pepper

  • Source: Puebla region, central valley of Mexico (Mexico City region), and California.
  • Heat: 3.
  • Ripe form of the green poblano.
  • Deep red-brown in color, and sweeter than the green.
  • In its dried form it is known as an ancho chile or a mulato chile.
  • Best roasted and used for rellenos or rajas. Also good in soups, stews, tamales, and sauces.

ROCOTILLO

  • Source: South America.
  • Heat: 7-8.

    rocotillo pepper

  • Related to the habañero, Scotch bonnet, and the Jamaican hot.
  • Also known as the rocoto and sometimes called a squash pepper because of its resemblance to patty pan squash.
  • Orange-yellow or deep red in its ripe form, rounded in shape with furrows, tapering to a point.
  • Measures about 1 inch long and 1-1/4 to 1-1/3 inches in diameter.
  • Thin fleshed, with a mild fruitiness and an intense heat.
  • Very good in ceviches, and pickled (en escabeche).
  • A good addition to salsas.

SANTA FE-GRANDEsanta fe-grande pepper

  • Source: Northern Mexico and theSouthwest.
  • Heat 6.
  • A type of guero chile.
  • Pale yellow, tapering from broad shoulders.
  • Measuring about 2-1/2 inches long and 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 inches in diameter.
  • Thick fleshed, has a fresh, very light melon flavor and a refined, sharp heat, similar to a high-quality New Mexico green chile.
  • Mainly used in yellow moles, salsas, and pickled (en escabeche).

SCOTCH BONNET

  • Source: Jamaica and other Caribbean islands, and coastal Belize.
  • Heat: 9-10.

    scotch bonnet pepper

  • Closely related to the habañero and the Jamaican hot.
  • Pale yellow-green, orange, or red in color, smaller than the habañero though similar in shape.
  • Measuring about 1 to 1-1/2 inches long and 1 to 1-1/2 inches in diameter.
  • Very hot; fruity and smoky flavor.
  • The Scotch bonnet is an essential ingredient in the Jamaican specialty called jerk sauce and in Caribbean curries.
  • It is also used as a condiment sauce.

SERRANO

  • Source: Mexico and the Southwest.
  • Heat:7.
  • A bright yet dark green to scarlet when ripe.
  • Cylindrical with a tapered, rounded end
  • Measures about 1 to 2 inches long and 1/2 to 3/4 inches in diameter.

    serrano pepper

  • Thick fleshed; has a clean biting heat and pleasantly high acidity.
  • Literally “highland” or”mountain,” the serrano is the hottest chile commonly available in the United States.
  • Excellent in salsas, pickled (en escabeche), or roasted and used in sauces.
  • Green and red serranos can be used interchangeably, although the red will be somewhat sweeter.
  • Red serranos are often used decoratively.
  • Either can substitute for the Thai chile in the ratio of three fresh serranos to one Thai.

SWEETPURPLEsweet purple pepper

  • Source: Holland.
  • Heat: 0-1.
  • Bright purple.
  • Tapering to a point from broad shoulders, and measuring about 4 to 5 inches long and 2 to 2-1/2 inches in diameter at the shoulders.
  • Thick fleshed; sweet flavor similar to bell peppers.
  • Used in salads. Can be roasted.
  • Like the Dutch red, this chile is being cultivated in Holland as a specialty produce item.

TABASCOtabasco peppers

  • Source: Louisiana, and Central andSouth America.
  • Heat: 9.
  • Bright orange-red.
  • Measuring about 1 to 1-1/2 inches long and 1/4to 1/2 inches in diameter.
  • Thin fleshed; a sharp, biting heat, with some steaminess and hints of celery and green onion.
  • Used almost exclusively in the famous Tabasco pepper sauce.

TEPIN

  • Source: South and Central America and the Southwest, expecially the Sonora Desert and surrounding areas.
  • Heat: 8.

    dried tepin peppers

  • Ripe form of acid chile.
  • Also known as chiltepin or chiltecpin.
  • Orange to reddish-brown in its ripe form, oval or spherical in shape, and measuring about 1/4 inch in diameter.
  • Thin fleshed, its fiery heat tends to dissipate quickly.
  • It resembles the wild chiles that were discovered by Columbus. Its name comes from the Nahuatl word meaning “flea.”
  • Good in salsas, soups, and stews.

THAI

  • Source: Thailand, Southeast Asia, and California.
  • Heat: 7-8 Bright medium green to red when ripe.
  • Thin, elongated, and pointed.

    thai peppers

  • Measures about 1-1/2 inches long and 1/4 inch in diameter.
  • Meaty textured and thin fleshed with copious seeds and a lingering heat.
  • Primarily used in Southeast Asian cooking.
  • Red Thais are sometimes used decoratively in salads and noodle dishes.
  • Fresh serrano chiles can be substituted in the ratio of three serranos to one Thai.